An AI expert has put together articles explaining the concepts behind many of the fundamental AI concepts in a series of easily digestible essays. Though, naturally, they are very long.
He goes paragraph by paragraph, taking the key concepts in them and giving you the appropriate level of background you need.
Here’s an example taken from Google’s paper explaining DeepMind. He takes each highlighted concept and gives you the needed background. He starts off explaining the problem of an enormous search space in Go by telling you how IBM beat the world’s best chest player over 20 years ago using rather mundane techniques, and how these techniques cannot be used for the game of Go. He then shows you how Google used multiple types of Deep Learning-trained AI with each having specific goals to beat the world champion, accomplishing a feat that was expected to take at least a decade longer than now.